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    From the growth of the two giants, see how hard it is to make chips.
    發布時間:2018-05-08 14:47:01   來源:本站原創   點擊量:
    [guide] Why did China do 30 years' chips without such giants as Intel and ARM? The key is that domestic CPU lacks a strong ecosystem. With more than ten years of experience in the chip industry, torvaldsing has made great progress in the difficult development of X86 ecosystem and ARM ecosystem and the brutal competition in the market. * * * appealed to Ma Huateng: with the help of Tencent's powerful ecosystem, give CPU and OS two old problems to OTT!
     
    Since the continuous fermentation of ZTE's events in recent days, all kinds of discussions have been chaotic.
     
    Torvaldsing, who has more than ten years of chip experience, told reporters that these days he was touched by the words "Bi Shu west wind".
     
    A bowl of beef noodles, really want to use beef, really want to use noodles, really want to stew a long time, such a simple truth, so large a country, so many elites in the past so many years, how can not understand?
     
    It's hard to make chips. Making core chips is more difficult. Making CPU chips that need ecosystems is harder than you can imagine.
     
    As a result, torvaldsing is trying to talk about the difficult development of the x86 ecosystem and the ARM ecosystem and the brutal market competition, and to introduce the difficulties of doing CPU and the glimmer of hope you can see at the moment.
     
     
    The following is the hero of torvaldsing:
     
    I tried to write a little more easily, because it was a very interesting topic, and carefully explored, many seemingly explosive news, in fact, a thousand miles in the gray line, and it started very early. The story is really as fun as a romance novel.
     
    This article will list a lot of past events and reference materials to ensure sincerity. Some places did not resist the analysis of some three legged cats. (about 1.3 words in this article, we recommend collecting first and reading later).
     
    X86 ecosystem
     
     
    Now Intel is nearly 100% in the server market, more than 80% in the desktop market, and the Intel has always attached importance to the publicity. In the eyes of the general public, Intel is the name of the chip, even the name of the high technology. But Intel is not born so. Its cattle X is true and true. It is killed in the competitive environment that powers are waiting for.
     
    King
     
    In 70s, before taking the IBM PC express, Intel's 8 - bit processor had been successful, but there were many competitors, and Zilog was the top one, and its Z80 series of products was 8080 compatible with Intel and had a high cost performance. Until 90s, many Chinese universities were using Zilog boards for computer experiment classes. At the time, there was a processor that was not inferior to the 8080 series, MOS's 6502. Later, MOS authorized 6502 of ISA (instruction set architecture) to a large number of manufacturers, and spread widely. The Apple-I and Apple-II of the 70s apple, the red and white Nintendo in 80s, the little bully learning machine in the early 90s, and the late 90s, all used the 6502 series of CPU.
     
    IBM PC gave Intel and Microsoft a great opportunity to develop. But the two must face competition. IBM PC is an open standard led by IBM, and all parts can be replaced. That's why we have the concept of "compatible machine" and the market that continues to this day. At that time, IBM asked Intel to authorize x86 instruction set to other manufacturers to avoid the dominance of CPU suppliers. (detailed list of X86 compatible processor manufacturers see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_x86_manufacturers) IBM itself also has the power to generate x86 compatible CPU. At the same time, in order to limit Microsoft's MS-DOS, IBM itself also does DOS operation system, named PC-DOS.
     
    Within the IBM PC camp, Intel competes with other CPU vendors, competing outside the camps and competing with Apple's Macintosh computers. At that time, Apple had switched to Motorola 68000 series CPU, with strong performance and attractive graphical interface. At that time, people who used Mac were forced to be more than IBM PC.
     
    Intel is struggling with the competitive pressure both inside and outside the camp. The potential threat is slowly brewing at this time. From the beginning of RISC-I in 1981, the streamlined instruction set (RISC) was gradually popular, and a series of RISC style CPU:1985 years MIPS Inc. launched a * * * * * * commercial RISC chip, HP launched PA-RISC in 1986, SUN company launched SPARC in 1987, Motorola in 1988 introduced MC88000. At that time, people generally believed that RISC was better than the CISC style CPU represented by x86, and even Intel and AMD were afraid of falling out of the RISC trend. AMD launched AM29000 in 1987, and Intel launched i860/i960 in 1988.
     
    At first, RISC didn't seem to threaten the desktop market. MIPS, PA-RISC and SPARC were all used for servers and workstations. Jobs, who was exiled by apple, used MC88000 series CPU to make NeXT desktop computers. In 1986, Acorn, a British company, launched a RISC processor called ARM, and the following year it had an operating system called RISC OS to attack the desktop market.
     
    In 1991, the RISC camp went to the desktop market. This year, IBM saw that in the PC camp, the two children of Intel and Microsoft were sitting big, slowly without their own control, pulling out Apple and the undesirable Motorola in the RISC market, launching the PowerPC architecture, using IBM and Motorola production chips, Apple as operating systems and the whole machine to push out new Power Macintosh computers. The three formed the AIM (Apple-IBM-Motorola) alliance and attacked the Wintel alliance fiercely.
     
    The result is that Wintel won. There are different reasons for that. Some people say that Wintel maintains backward compatibility with existing software, while Apple frequently changes the underlying CPU, resulting in failure.

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